# Electronical and Electronic

### Kirchhoff’s current and voltage laws

Kirchhoff’s current and voltage laws In our last article, we looked at the principles and operation of a d.c motor. In this article, we’re going to investigate Kirchoff’s current and voltage laws, as well as how to apply them to engineering problems. Kirchoff’s law of current Kirchoff’s law of current states that the algebraic sum […]

### What are the principles of operation of a DC electric motor?

What are the principles of operation of a DC electric motor? In our last article, we looked at the electrical parameters in series and parallel electrical circuits. In this article, we’re going to dive into the principles of operation of a DC electric motor. The motor effect When a current-carrying conductor is placed on a […]

### What are the electrical parameters in series and parallel electrical networks?

What are the electrical parameters in series and parallel electrical networks? In our last article, we looked at the principles of operation of electrical cells. In this article we’re going to move on to the electrical parameters in both series and parallel electrical networks. When we have circuits with more than one resistor, we need […]

### What are the principles of operation of electrical cells?

What are the principles of operation of electrical cells? In our last article, we looked at the basic electrical parameters in D.C. circuits. In this article, we’re going to move on to the principles of operation of electrical cells. We’ll look at the different types of cells and batteries, their mechanisms, and their applications. What […]

### How can we calculate basic electrical parameters?

How can we calculate basic electrical parameters? In our last article, we looked at how we can select the best engineering material for the task. In this article, we’re going to move on to basic electrical parameters in D.C. circuits. As an engineer, we need to be able to define these key terms and apply […]

### How do moments of force affect engineering problems?

How do moments of force affect engineering problems? In our last article, we looked at how we can apply principles of energy and power to engineering problems. Now we’re going to dive into how moments of force can be applied to engineering problems. Moments If we want to describe a force acting on a body, […]

### How can we apply the principles of energy and power to practical problems?

How can we apply the principles of energy and power to practical problems? In our last articles, we looked at things like some of the forces that can affect engineering problems, and how we can solve problems involving distance and velocity. Now we’re going to look at how we can solve problems using the principles […]

### What are the forces at a point that affect engineering problems?

What are the forces at a point that affect engineering problems? In our last article, we looked at how we can solve practical problems that involve distance and velocity. Now we’re going to look at forces at a point, what they are, and how they can affect engineering problems. Before we jump in, let’s check […]

### How can we solve practical problems involving distance and velocity?

How can we solve practical problems involving distance and velocity? In our last article we looked at SI units, what they are and why we use them, giving us a solid introduction to Engineering Science. In this article, we’re going to see how we can solve some practical problems with engineering. Introduction to definitions Before […]

### How can we describe SI units?

How can we describe SI units? If you’ve read any of our previous articles, you’ll see that we dive into various engineering topics, such as mechanical resonance or deflection of cantilever beams. In this article, we’re going to learn all about SI units, standard engineering prefix notation, and how we can describe them. Introduction to […]

### How do we test and debug our PLC code?

How do we test and debug our PLC code? In our previous articles, we dived into PLC systems, how they work, and how we can program them to carry out tasks. Now let’s find out how we can test and debug this programming to make sure everything runs correctly. PLC start-up Before we turn on […]

### What are logic functions and how are they applied?

What are logic functions, and how are they applied? In our previous article, we dived into PLC Programming techniques. In this article, we’re going to check out logic functions and how they are applied to PLC systems. What is a PLC timer? A PLC timer is an instruction that controls and operates the device for […]

### Understanding different programming techniques

Understanding different programming techniques In our previous articles, we looked at PLC systems and what they are, as well as their interface requirements. Now we’re going to look at the different programming techniques we can use in a PLC system. PLC programming A PLC program is a set of instructions representing the logic that governs […]

### Interface requirements and their internal structure

Interface requirements and their internal structure In our previous article we looked at PLC systems and what they are. Now we’re going to look at the interface requirements we would see in a PLC system and look at their internal structure. To connect input/output modules to the processor in a PLC, we can use a […]

### What is a PLC system?

What is a PLC system? In our previous articles, we discussed various aspects of digital electronics, including the application of Thevenin’s theorem. Now we’re going to look at PLC systems, what they are and why they might be used. What is a PLC? PLC stands for “programmable logic controller”. They are used to automate industrial […]

### How do we apply Thevenin’s theorem?

How do we apply Thevenin’s theorem? In our previous articles, we discussed various aspects of digital electronics, including things such as logic gates. Now we’re going to look at Thenevin’s theorem and how we can apply it. What is Thevenin’s theorem? The theorem is an analytical method that’s used to change a complex circuit into […]

### Understanding logic gates and truth tables.

Understanding logic gates and truth tables. In our previous articles, we discussed the binary number system in relation to digital electronics. Now we’ll focus on logic gates and truth tables. As we mentioned before, binary represents the on-off state. Boolean functions (true or false) can be implemented using electronic gates. There are a couple of […]

### Understanding the characteristics of digital electronics

Understanding the characteristics of digital electronics In our previous articles, we discussed the mechanisms of a voltage amplifier and analogue signals in general. Now, in this article, we’re going to switch focus a little and look at digital electronics. The binary number system (Base2) Before we look at digital electronics, we need to understand the […]

### Understanding the mechanisms involved in a voltage amplifier

Understanding the mechanisms involved in a voltage amplifier In our previous articles, we discussed analogue signals and their characteristics. We’re going to dive a little deeper into analogue signals and see how a voltage amplifier works. What is an operational amplifier? Operational amplifiers, or op-amps, are one of the basic building blocks of analogue electrical […]

### Characteristics of analogue electronics

Characteristics of analogue electronics In our previous articles, we’ve discussed subjects such as the different types of semiconductors and how they work. We’re now going to focus on analogue electronics—what it is and its characteristics. What is an analogue signal? An analogue signal is continuous; in other words, it can have an infinite number of […]

### The structure and mechanism of a Bipolar transistor

The structure and mechanism of a Bipolar transistor In our previous article, we discussed the operation of metal oxide transistors, and now we’re going to have a look at bipolar transistors. We’ll look at their mechanism and how they work. What is a bipolar transistor? A bipolar junction transistor is a semiconductor device which can […]

### The operation of metal oxide semiconductors

The operation of metal oxide semiconductors In our previous article, we discussed how semiconductors operate. We’re now going to get a bit more specific and look in detail at metal oxide semiconductors. Junction Field-effect Transistors (JFET) We first need to understand Junction Field-effect Transistors before focusing on a metal oxide semiconductor. A transistor is a […]

### How do common semiconductors operate?

How do common semiconductors operate? In our last article, we checked out some of the different types of semiconductors. Now we’re going to have a look at how the common types of semiconductors operate. Zener Diode A normal p-n junction diode allows electric current in forward-biased condition. When forward-biased voltage is applied to the p-n […]

### Different types of semiconductors

Different types of semiconductors In our previous article, we looked at the characteristics of a semiconductor. We’re now going to move on to looking at different types of semiconductors and how they work. N-type and P-type semiconductors The image below shows an n-type conductor: Phosphorus has one more electron than silicon does, so when it […]

### The characteristics of basic semiconductors

The characteristics of basic semiconductors In some of our previous articles on Electrical and Electronic Engineering we’ve looked at induction, waveforms and capacitance. We’re now going to move on to looking at semiconductors and how they fit in to these principles. What is a semiconductor? Semiconductors form the basis of all microprocessors and integrated circuits. […]

### Trigonometric representation of periodic waveforms.

Trigonometric representation of periodic wave forms While we’ve already looked at periodic wave forms in a previous article, we’re going to jump into the trigonometric representations and see some of the essential calculations we need. Before we jump in, just to refresh our memory, let’s look at an image of two sinusoidal waveforms ‘in phase’: […]

### What are the principles of inductance and capacitance?

What are the principles of inductance and capacitance? In our previous article on inductance, we jumped into the behaviour of inductance and what it is. Now we’re going to look at the principles of inductance, as well as the principles of capacitance. Inductance and Capacitance. We’ve already touched on the surface of inductance in our […]

### What is the Difference between Transformers and Rectifiers in Power Supplies?

What is the Difference between Transformers and Rectifiers? We shall first need to recap on some background knowledge relating to induction

### What is Meant by Inductance

Introduction to Inductance. The behaviour of the inductor is based on the properties of the magnetic field generated in a coil of wire.

### Capacitors Explained for Engineers

Flight Mechanics of a Typical Aircraft Flight. This article will give a brief overview of a typical flight of an aircraft

### What are Periodic Waves?

Periodic waves are discussed including engineering examples worked calculations

### What is Electromagnetic Induction?

Principles and Worked Examples Electromagnetic (EM) induction occurs when an electromagnetic field (emf) is induced in a wire, or more...

### Engineering Projects – The critical path

Following on from our last article on engineering projects - planning for success (catch up here), this article expands on project...

### Engineering Projects – Planning for success!

Being an engineer is much more than just performing calculations and making drawings. In the real-world, professional engineers are...

### Engineering Materials…What ‘stuff’ is made from

Engineering can be defined as the application of science and technology to create or produce something of use. In order to ‘produce’...