Download Prospectus


Unleashing the Potential of Online Engineering Courses: Embracing Flexibility and Open Access

Unleashing the Potential of Online Engineering Courses: Embracing Flexibility and Open Access Introduction In recent years, the landscape of education has undergone a significant transformation with the rise of online learning platforms. Among the various fields benefiting from this shift, engineering education stands out as a prime example. Today, more students are turning to online […]

How do we test and debug our PLC code?

How do we test and debug our PLC code? In our previous articles, we dived into PLC systems, how they work, and how we can program them to carry out tasks.  Now let’s find out how we can test and debug this programming to make sure everything runs correctly. PLC start-up Before we turn on […]

What are logic functions and how are they applied?

What are logic functions, and how are they applied? In our previous article, we dived into PLC Programming techniques. In this article, we’re going to check out logic functions and how they are applied to PLC systems. What is a PLC timer? A PLC timer is an instruction that controls and operates the device for […]

Understanding different programming techniques

Understanding different programming techniques In our previous articles, we looked at PLC systems and what they are, as well as their interface requirements. Now we’re going to look at the different programming techniques we can use in a PLC system. PLC programming A PLC program is a set of instructions representing the logic that governs […]

Interface requirements and their internal structure

Interface requirements and their internal structure In our previous article we looked at PLC systems and what they are. Now we’re going to look at the interface requirements we would see in a PLC system and look at their internal structure. To connect input/output modules to the processor in a PLC, we can use a […]

What is a PLC system?

What is a PLC system? In our previous articles, we discussed various aspects of digital electronics, including the application of Thevenin’s theorem.  Now we’re going to look at PLC systems, what they are and why they might be used. What is a PLC? PLC stands for “programmable logic controller”.  They are used to automate industrial […]

How do we apply Thevenin’s theorem?

How do we apply Thevenin’s theorem? In our previous articles, we discussed various aspects of digital electronics, including things such as logic gates.  Now we’re going to  look at Thenevin’s theorem and how we can apply it. What is Thevenin’s theorem? The theorem is an analytical method that’s used to change a complex circuit into […]

Understanding logic gates and truth tables.

Understanding logic gates and truth tables. In our previous articles, we discussed the binary number system in relation to digital electronics.  Now we’ll focus on logic gates and truth tables. As we mentioned before, binary represents the on-off state.  Boolean functions (true or false) can be implemented using electronic gates.  There are a couple of […]

Understanding the characteristics of digital electronics

Understanding the characteristics of digital electronics In our previous articles, we discussed the mechanisms of a voltage amplifier and analogue signals in general.  Now, in this article, we’re going to switch focus a little and look at digital electronics. The binary number system (Base2) Before we look at digital electronics, we need to understand the […]

Understanding the mechanisms involved in a voltage amplifier

Understanding the mechanisms involved in a voltage amplifier In our previous articles, we discussed analogue signals and their characteristics.  We’re going to dive a little deeper into analogue signals and see how a voltage amplifier works. What is an operational amplifier? Operational amplifiers, or op-amps, are one of the basic building blocks of analogue electrical […]

Characteristics of analogue electronics

Characteristics of analogue electronics In our previous articles, we’ve discussed subjects such as the different types of semiconductors and how they work.  We’re now going to focus on analogue electronics—what it is and its characteristics. What is an analogue signal? An analogue signal is continuous; in other words, it can have an infinite number of […]

The structure and mechanism of a Bipolar transistor

The structure and mechanism of a Bipolar transistor In our previous article, we discussed the operation of metal oxide transistors, and now we’re going to have a look at bipolar transistors.  We’ll look at their mechanism and how they work. What is a bipolar transistor? A bipolar junction transistor is a semiconductor device which can […]

The operation of metal oxide semiconductors

The operation of metal oxide semiconductors In our previous article, we discussed how semiconductors operate.  We’re now going to get a bit more specific and look in detail at metal oxide semiconductors. Junction Field-effect Transistors (JFET) We first need to understand Junction Field-effect Transistors before focusing on a metal oxide semiconductor. A transistor is a […]

How do common semiconductors operate?

How do common semiconductors operate? In our last article, we checked out some of the different types of semiconductors.  Now we’re going to have a look at how the common types of semiconductors operate. Zener Diode A normal p-n junction diode allows electric current in forward-biased condition.  When forward-biased voltage is applied to the p-n […]

Different types of semiconductors

Different types of semiconductors In our previous article, we looked at the characteristics of a semiconductor.  We’re now going to move on to looking at different types of semiconductors and how they work. N-type and P-type semiconductors The image below shows an n-type conductor: Phosphorus has one more electron than silicon does, so when it […]

The characteristics of basic semiconductors

The characteristics of basic semiconductors In some of our previous articles on Electrical and Electronic Engineering we’ve looked at induction, waveforms and capacitance.  We’re now going to move on to looking at semiconductors and how they fit in to these principles. What is a semiconductor? Semiconductors form the basis of all microprocessors and integrated circuits.  […]

Trigonometric representation of periodic waveforms.

Trigonometric representation of periodic wave forms While we’ve already looked at periodic wave forms in a previous article, we’re going to jump into the trigonometric representations and see some of the essential calculations we need. Before we jump in, just to refresh our memory, let’s look at an image of two sinusoidal waveforms ‘in phase’:  […]

What are the principles of inductance and capacitance?

What are the principles of inductance and capacitance? In our previous article on inductance, we jumped into the behaviour of inductance and what it is.  Now we’re going to look at the principles of inductance, as well as the principles of capacitance. Inductance and Capacitance. We’ve already touched on the surface of inductance in our […]

How can we analyse a single-degree-of-freedom lumped parameter systems with damping?

How can we analyse a single-degree-of-freedom lumped parameter system with damping? In our previous article on undamped vibration, we looked at solving vibration problems with a single degree of freedom.  In this article, we’re going to look at systems with damping and how to analyse them. We’ll focus on the mathematical analysis of a single-degree-of-freedom […]

How can we analyse undamped vibration problems.

How can we analyse undamped vibration problems. In our previous article on harmonic motion, we looked at how we can analyse problems involving simple harmonic motion, now we’re going to look at solving vibration problems with a single degree of freedom. Vibration Analysis In vibration analysis, there are two approaches we are interested in.  One […]

How do we analyse problems involving harmonic motion?

How do we analyse problems involving harmonic motion? In our previous article on mechanical resonance, we looked at harmonic motion and how it affects structures.  Now we’re going to jump into how we can solve issues that involve simple harmonic motion. What is simple harmonic motion? Many systems consist of components that vibrate in the […]

What are mechanical resonance and damping in engineering?

What are mechanical resonance and damping in engineering? In our previous articles, such as our article on axial load-carrying capacity, we focused on buckling and load-carrying calculations.  In our next few articles, we’ll move on to focusing on the vibration of structures and how it can affect them. What is vibration in engineering? Let’s dive […]

How can we calculate the axial load-carrying capacity of a reinforced concrete column and classify it?

How can we calculate the axial load-carrying capacity of a reinforced concrete column and classify it? Following on from our previous article on the axial load-carrying capacity of a steel column, we’re going to look at the axial load-carrying capacity of a concrete column and also see how we can classify it. What is a […]

How do we calculate the axial load-carrying capacity of a steel column?

How can the axial load-carrying capacity of a steel column be determined? Following on from our previous article on evaluating the Euler buckling load, we’re going to look at some other calculations we need when looking at buckling of columns. Eccentrically loaded steel column design. The axial force can’t act centrically on the column, so, […]

How do we calculate the Euler buckling load?

How do we calculate the Euler buckling load? Following on from our previous article on evaluating the slenderness ratio in columns, we’re going to look at some other calculations we need when looking at the buckling of columns. Axial Resistance For the axial resistance of a column to be satisfied, the following conditions must be […]

Evaluating the slenderness ratio in columns.

Evaluating the slenderness ratio in columns. Following on from our previous article on buckling failure modes, we’re going to dive deeper into the types of buckling in columns. Column Buckling. Column buckling, or column stability, can be expressed as the failure of load-bearing capacity cause by the effect of pressure.  It’s manifested as bending, or […]

What are buckling failure modes?

What are buckling failure modes? In our previous articles on beams, we discussed various types of deflection and how we go about calculating it in various structures.  We’re going to pivot into buckling and how it can affect structures. What is buckling? Buckling occurs when a structure, such as a column or strut, is under […]

How do we analyse the deflection of simply supported beams using calculus.

How do we analyse the deflection of simply supported beams using calculus. In our previous article on deflection in simply supported beams, we looked at calculating deflection using standard tables.  In this article, however, our focus will be on calculating deflection using calculus.  Relationship Between Deflection, Slope and Radius of Curvature As we mentioned in […]

Determine the deflection of en-castre beams.

Determine the deflection of en-castre beams. Following on from our previous article on deflection of beams with a combined load, we’re going to look at deflection in a different type of beam. What is an en-castre beam? En-castre beams, or fixed beams, have fixed supports at both ends. So, they don’t allow horizontal, vertical or rotational […]

Determine the deflection of beams due to combined loads

Determine the deflection of beams due to combined loads If you read our article deflection of beams with a single load, you’ll know about deflection of a beam.  Now we’re going to investigate how deflection affects a beam with combined loads. Calculating deflections on a beam with combined loads. Deflections from combined loading on a […]

Determine the deflection of cantilever beams with a single load.

Determine the deflection of cantilever beams with a single load. If you read our previous article on what is deflection, you’ll have some idea of deflection and it’s magnitude.  Now we’re going to investigate how we determine deflection. What is a cantilever beam? Cantilever beams are constrained at one end and free at their other […]

What is the deflection of a structure and what determines its magnitude?

What is the deflection of a structure and what determines its magnitude? If you’ve read our previous articles on how to determine forces on a joint or structure,  you’ll know that there are many different calculations used in civil engineering.  Now we’re going to change direction slightly and take a look at deflection and what […]

How do we analyse the effects of loading on cylinders?

How do we analyse the effects of loading on cylinders? Continuing on in our series looking at the various calculations used in Civil Structural Analysis, we’re going to dive into analysing the effects of loading on cylinders. What is a cylinder? Firstly, what is a cylinder?  Many items like steam boilers or large pipes are […]

How to determine the forces acting in pin-jointed frame structures.

How to determine the forces acting in pin-jointed frame structures. We’re going to continue our series of articles on the calculations used to determine various forces and effects by jumping in to another calculation. What is a pin joint. Before looking at the forces acting in a pin joint, we need to know what a […]

Determine the effects of torsional loads on shafts.

Determine the effects of torsional loads on shafts. We’re going to continue our series of articles on the calculations used in civil and mechanical engineering by diving into torsional loads on shafts and their effects.  The image below shows a motor supplied with power which causes a shaft to rotate.  The rotating shaft causes the […]

Calculating the reaction forces and bending moment distributions in a simply supported beam.

Calculating the reaction forces and bending moment distributions in a simply supported beam. This is the second in a series of articles diving into the various calculations used in civil and mechanical engineering, such as our article on calculating stress.  For this one, we’re going to look at reaction forces in a simply supported beam. […]

How to calculate stress for direct loading of components.

How to calculate stress for direct loading of components. If a rubber strip is pulled it stretches, and the more you pull it the more it stretches.  There’s a relationship between the extension and the force applied, known as Hooke’s Law, and it can be expressed as a force extension graph: The top graph above […]

Best practice standards used in the construction industry

Best practice standards used in the construction industry. If you’ve read our article on the civil engineering code of conduct, you’ll be familiar with some best practices in construction projects.  In this article we’re going to focus on the best practice standards used in the construction industry. What are best practices? In civil engineering and […]

Civil Engineering Code of Conduct

Civil Engineering Code of Conduct If you’ve read our article on sustainable design in a construction project you’ll already be familiar with some ethics around construction.  However, there’s a lot more to it than that, and we’ll find out some of the considerations an engineer must think about in this article. Business ethics for engineers […]

What is sustainable design in a construction project?

What is sustainable design in a construction project? Before we can understand sustainable design, we first need to understand sustainable development.  Sustainable development The World Commission on Environment and Development defines it as “a strategy that…meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”.  However, […]

What is a cantilever beam and how can we calculate its deflection?

What is a cantilever beam and how can we calculate its deflection? You may have read our previous article about beams and their deflection.  The article talked about deflection in general – what it is and how can it be determined.  Now we’re going to dive a little deeper and focus on cantilever beams and […]

What is the magnitude of deflection in beams and how do we determine it?

What is the magnitude of deflection in beams and how do we determine it? When a beam is subjected to a load, it deflects from its original position.  In other words, it bends to a certain extent.  The amount of deflection depends on the beam’s cross-section and its strength.    There are two criteria for […]

Cost management used in construction projects.

How cost management is used in construction projects. You may have read some previous articles about construction projects, and noticed cost management mentioned as being the responsibility of a few different project roles.  Cost management is an important part of a construction project to ensure a budget is in place.  It also ensures that the […]

What is important in flooring construction?

What is important in flooring construction? In our previous articles we discussed the uses of materials such as timber and masonry in construction.  Now we’re going to talk about floors, and what is important in constructing them, including materials. What is a floor? Let’s confirm what a floor is so everyone knows what we’re dealing […]

Key roles in a construction project.

Key roles in a construction project. In a previous article we discussed specifying client needs before we launch into a construction project.  But where does the client fit into the project?  Is this the only time we see them, and who else is involved?  Let’s find out! Collaboration in a construction project Collaboration is crucial […]

Masonry and its uses in construction

Masonry and its uses in construction You’re maybe familiar with the term masonry, and maybe even that it’s used in construction.  But many of us aren’t much more familiar that, so let’s dive in and find out more! What is masonry? The materials covered by the term masonry include natural stone, manufactured forms made of […]

How do we go about specifying customer needs?

How do we go about specifying customer needs? In any construction project there will be a customer – the person or organisation who wants the building(s) detailed in the project.  It’s the customer who tells us what they want, when, and how much of a budget they might have. It’s easy to see how what […]

What are the different types of construction projects?

What are the different types of construction projects? A construction project is as a series of interrelated construction tasks which are undertaken in a systematic order over a temporary timeframe.  It results in the completion of the project and the creation of a tangible product or outcome. The type of processes involved in a construction […]

Understanding imperative and declarative programming

Understanding imperative and declarative programming While we discussed programming paradigms in a previous article, the most common explanation of the difference between imperative and declarative programming is that imperative tells the computer how to do things, whereas declarative focuses on what we want to get from the computer. Statements vs expressions Imperative code uses statements […]

What is a programming paradigm and what types are there?

What is a programming paradigm and what types are there? Programming paradigms are different ways or styles in which a programming language can be organised.  Each paradigm consists of certain structures, features, and ways to tackle common programming problems.  Some paradigms are more suited to certain types of problems, so you would use different paradigms […]

What is the Scrum Methodology?

What is the Scrum Methodology? You might remember from our article on Agile software development that we mentioned there were several Agile features. These are things like what aspects of Agile will we use or not use and what way will we implement Agile into our business in a way that works for us.  One […]

How timber can be used as a construction material

How timber can be used as a construction material One of the most valuable building materials we have is timber.  This is because wood has an internal structure that results in an extremely anisotropic material (properties are different in different directions), making it a typical natural composite material.  Although a wide variety of industries use […]

How can buildings be classified?

How can buildings be classified? We spend a lot of time in various structures, more so than we ever do outside.  There are different types of buildings we spend our time in and might be involved in constructing, so let’s have a look at how we can classify these buildings. Classification of buildings based on […]

What is Agile Software Development?

What is Agile Software Development? Agile development is an approach that is a combination of iterative and incremental sequences with a focus on process adaptability and customer satisfaction via a rapid delivery of the working product. Unlike the more traditional waterfall model previously used in development, where each step is completed sequentially, agile promotes an […]

What is the Software Development LifeCycle?

What is the Software Development LifeCycle? The SDLC (Software Development Life Cycle) is a breakdown of all the steps involved in the creation of software and will normally move through the following steps: Why is it used? The SDLC gives a business or team a tried-and-tested foundation for every software related project that they produce.  […]

What are coding standards?  Do we really need them?

What are coding standards?  Do we really need them? Coding standards are rules and guidelines that help developers create cleaner, more readable, and more efficient code with minimal bugs and errors.  They also offer a uniform way for developers to build highly functional code. Coding standards aren’t the personal opinions of any one developer. They […]

How does the grain size affect the strength of a material?

How does the grain size affect the strength of a material? In this article we are going to focus on how the grain size impacts on yield strength. What is a grain? A crystal can be modelled as a unit lattice in which atoms are arranged in a specific position, when a group of crystals […]

Material deformation techniques

Material deformation techniques This article discusses various methods where materials are forcibly deformed, and their physical or microstructural properties are altered. This is done to enhance certain mechanical or electrical properties. The deformation usually takes place at high or low temperatures, and this is reflected in the naming of the process. Cold Working This process […]

The Four Fundamental Forces that Enable Aircraft to Fly

In this article, we will identify the four main forces concerned with aircraft in flight. We will discuss the nature of these forces and deduce mathematical and descriptive definitions

What is pseudocode and why do we use it in programming?

What is pseudocode and why do we use it in programming? As much as software developers would love to jump straight into programming when they get a new project or feature, that’s not a good idea and can lead to poor design and mistakes being made. Firstly, the developer(s) will create algorithms to represent what […]

What is an algorithm and why do we use them in computing?

What is an algorithm and why do we use them in computing? An algorithm is implemented via a programming language.  Although different programming languages have different syntax, similar to French and Italian having different syntax, and may be designed for different purposes, how they implement an algorithm remains roughly the same.  They have the same […]

How to Draw and Analyse Free Body Diagrams (FBDs)

In this free engineering tutorial we shall review What is a Free Body Diagram (FBD), Steps to draw a Free Body Diagram and Examples

What is Mechanical Testing of Engineering Materials?

This article will investigate the various ways in which mechanical testing techniques can be applied to engineering materials.

What is the Difference between Transformers and Rectifiers in Power Supplies?

What is the Difference between Transformers and Rectifiers? We shall first need to recap on some background knowledge relating to induction

Solid Solution Strengthening

High purity metals, while useful, are often softer and weaker than their alloys. The mechanical properties such as yield strength and…

Dispersion strengthening

What is dispersion strengthening? Dispersion strengthening is a process carried out to improve the properties of metals by adding…

Flight Mechanics of a Typical Aircraft Flight

Flight Mechanics of a Typical Aircraft Flight. This article will give a brief overview of a typical flight of an aircraft

What is Meant by Inductance

Introduction to Inductance. The behaviour of the inductor is based on the properties of the magnetic field generated in a coil of wire.

Capacitors Explained for Engineers

Flight Mechanics of a Typical Aircraft Flight. This article will give a brief overview of a typical flight of an aircraft

How do we Measure Airspeed and Altitude of Aircraft?

Measuring the airspeed and altitude of an aircraft it is not as simple as you might first think, and requires the consideration of a…

What are Flight Control Surfaces?

This section will identify the main components within an aircraft, more from the point of view of large external parts, more specifically,

What are Periodic Waves?

Periodic waves are discussed including engineering examples worked calculations

What is Electromagnetic Induction?

Principles and Worked Examples Electromagnetic (EM) induction occurs when an electromagnetic field (emf) is induced in a wire, or more…

Engineering Projects – The critical path

Following on from our last article on engineering projects – planning for success (catch up here), this article expands on project…

Engineering Projects – Planning for success!

Being an engineer is much more than just performing calculations and making drawings. In the real-world, professional engineers are…

Aircraft Design – Aerofoil and Wing Design for Preliminary Aircraft Design

Part 2 of 3 of our Aircraft Design series. In this 20-minute video you will learn about aerofoil and wing design. If this video interests…

Aircraft Design – How to use Wing and Thrust Loading in your designs

This 18-minute video is the first tutorial in our new aircraft design series. The topic is how designers use thrust loading and wing…

Understanding Variation in Manufacturing

Variation is defined as “a change or slight difference in condition, amount, or level, typically within certain limits.” In this article…

Engineering Materials…What ‘stuff’ is made from

Engineering can be defined as the application of science and technology to create or produce something of use. In order to ‘produce’…